- ALBERT-BIROT, Pierre (1876-1967)
Editor of SIC (1916-1919) [»].
- ALBERTS, Johannes ()
- ALBRECHT, Johannes Sokrates
Unknown artist. Participant of the First International Dada Fair - Otto Burchard Gallery, Berlin 1920.
- ALEKSIC, Dragan (1901-1958)
- ANDRIEUX, Louis (See ARAGON, Louis)
- APOLLINAIRE, Guillaume (1880-1918)
Apollinaire [pseudonym of Wilhelm Albert Vladimir Apollinaris Kostrowitzky] moved to Paris in 1899 and by the time of his death during the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918 he was the unchallenged leader of the city’s literary and artistic Avant Garde. His depression after implication in the 1911 theft of the 'Mona Lisa' led to friends setting up the journal Les Soirées de Paris [»] for him to edit. There he championed everything new in art, literature, and film. He contributed a host of articles to newspapers and journals, celebrating Cubism, Futurism, and Simultaneism, and coining the terms Orphism and Surrealism. His literary output ranged from pornography to innovative poetry, such as Alcools (1913) and Calligrammes (1918); he pioneered verse without punctuation, one-line poems and visual poetry. [source: Breaking].
[Apollinaire - Official Site]
- ARAGON, Louis (1897-1982)
Through André Breton, Aragon was introduced to Dada. Together with Philippe Soupault, he and Breton founded the review Littérature [»](1919).
[Louis Aragon Online].
- ARENSBERG, Walter Conrad (1878-1954)
American art collector, critic and poet. Between 1913 and 1950 Walter and Louise Arensberg collected the works of artists such as Marcel Duchamp, Walter Pach, and Beatrice Wood. The Arensbergs became particularly close with Marcel Duchamp [»]. They would become the artist's life-long patrons and form the largest, most significant collection of his work.
- ARNAULD, Céline (1885-1952)
Writer associated with the Littérature group in Paris. Céline Arnauld took part in Dada performances. She is credited in the program of the Manifestation Dada de la Maison d’Oeuvre (March 1920) in La Première Aventure Céleste de M. Antipyrine by Tristan Tzara. She is also recorded as an author and performer of a dialogue called 'Jeu d’éches' in the Festival Dada at the Salle Gaveau.
- ARP, Hans (Jean) (1886-1966)
See on this site: Hans (Jean) Arp.
- BAADER, Johannes (1875-1955)
See on this site: Johannes Baader.
- BAARGELD, Johannes Theodor (1892-1927)
See on this site: Johannes Baargeld.
- BALL, Hugo (1875-1927)
See on this site: Hugo Ball.
- BARON, Jacques (1905-1986)
Initially involved with the Dada movement, Baron became a founding member of the Surrealist movement and contributed to La Révolution surréaliste.
- BLUMENFELD, Erwin (1897-1969)
Compared to his fashion photographs, the early work is less known: the often bitingly humorous Dada collages produced between 1916 and 1933. His friendship with Paul Citroen and Walter Mehring, the association with Berlin's bohemia surrounding Else Lasker-Schüler and Herwarth Walden's Galerie Der Sturm, and his worship of George Grosz collided with Blumenfeld's career in the garment trade. Blumenfeld sensed the urge to write, paint, and act on stage, but still he pursued the career of a businessman and, in 1923, opened a shop for women's leather goods in Amsterdam. Blumenfeld's cynical and extremely individualistic approach, humor, scorn, and anarchy were perfectly Dada.
- BOESNER, Carl ()
Photographer. Participant of the First International Dada Fair - Otto Burchard Gallery, Berlin 1920.
- BONSET, I.K. (See VAN DOESBURG, Theo)
- BRAUNER, Victor (1903-1966)
With the poet Ilarie Voronca (1903-1946) Victor Brauner co-founded the Dadaist review 75HP [»] in Bucharest. He went to Paris in 1925 but returned to Bucharest a year later. In Bucharest in 1929 Brauner was associated with the Dadaist and Surrealist reviews Punct, Integral and Unu. In 1930 Brauner met André Breton in Paris and discovered Surrealism, which became his new source of inspiration. In 1935, financial troubles compelled him to return to Bucharest. But he left again in 1938, making France his permanent home. After the Second World War, Brauner's reputation grew rapidly, and he exhibited regularly in New York, London, Paris, and Amsterdam.
- BRETON, André (1896-1966)
French poet, Dadaist and founder of Surrealism, Breton became an editor of the Dada magazine Littérature [»] in 1919 with Aragon and Soupault, and sole editor in May 1922. Earlier that year he had acrimoniously split with Tristan Tzara over the direction of Dada in Paris. In 1924 he launched his first Manifesto of Surrealism and edited the Surrealist magazines La Révolution Surréaliste (1924-1929), which included the 'Second Manifesto of Surrealism' (1929) and the financially precarious Le Surréalisme au service de la révolution (1930-1933). He condemned Surrealists, such as Bataille, Artaud, Soupault, who dared to deviate from his position. In 1927 he joined the French Communist party (Gas Workers Section) until expelled in 1935. His Surrealist novel, Nadja, was published in 1928. He also propagated automatic writing and use of the 'exquisite corpse' (akin to the game of consequence) [source: Breaking Panel 49].
- BUFFET, Gabrielle (1881-1985)
Gabrielle Buffet, musician and friend of the composer Edgard Varèse, had a crucial influence on Picabia’s art. She married Francis in 1909. They stayed together until 1917.
- BURCHARD, Otto ()
- CANTARELLI, Gino (1899-1950)
Gino Cantarelli was an Italian Dadaist poet and painter; associated first with Futurism, then with Dada. From 1917 to 1920 he published the journal Procellaria, together with Aldo Fiozzi, a journal which combined Futurist and Dadaist tendencies. In 1920 the two editors joined with Giulio Evola to publish Bleu [»], which was devoted entirely to Dada and which appeared in Mantua like the earlier journal.
- CENDRARS, Blaise (1887-1961)
Blaise Cendrars (pseudonym of Frédéric Louis Sauser) seems to have adopted his name based on braise (ember) and cendres (cinders) whilst living in New York where he wrote 'Easter in New York', which had a profound influence on Apollinaire. In 1913 he set up the press Les Hommes Nouveaux [»], which published his collaboration with Sonia Delaunay, La Prose du trans-sibérien. Apollinaire helped place his poems in Les Soirées de Paris [»] and related journals. On the outbreak of war he joined the French Foreign Legion and lost his right arm in the Somme campaign, necessitating him to learn to write with his left hand. [source: Breaking Panel 61].
[Centre d'Etudes Blaise Cendrars]
- CHARCHOUNE, Serge (1888-1975)
Serge Charchoune participated in the Dada movement from 1921 to 1924 and contributed to the reviews Mecano [»], Merz [»], and Manomètre [»] in collaboration with Schwitters, Lissitsky, Tzara, and Arp; founder of the leaflet Transbordeur Dada.
- CHRISTIAN (See HERBIET, Georges)
- CITROEN, Hans (1905-1985)
- CITROEN, Paul (1896-1983)
Started to experiment with photography with Erwin Blumenfeld. Began in 1919 studying in Berlin and at the Bauhaus in Weimar. Associated with the Dada movement in Berlin; participated in the Erste Internationale Dada Messe [»] in 1920.
- COVERT, John Raphael (1882-1960)
Associated with the Walter Arensberg Circle in New York; founder of the Society of Independent Artists, an active participant in the Société Anonyme.
- CRAVAN, Arthur (1887-1918)
Pseudonym of Fabian Lloyd. From 1911 to 1915 he published the critical magazine Maintenant [»] which appeared in five issues.
- CREVEL, René (1900-1935)
Born in Paris. After university, Crevel entered the French military. There, he befriended several other young writers who introduced him to members of the popular Dada movement. Crevel's new friends included Breton and Eluard, who contributed to the journal Littérature. With Roger Vitrac he co-edited the magazine Aventure (1921-1922) [»]. As Crevel became involved in politics, he attempted to intermingle the harshly logical world of communism with the surrealist realm of the irrational. In the mid 1920s, Crevel became ill with tuberculosis and retreated to a sanatorium in Switzerland. He committed suicide in 1935.
- CROTTI, Jean (1878-1958)
Artist associated with the Dada movement in New York. In New York, Crotti established friendships with Francis Picabia and Marcel Duchamp [»] with whom he shared a studio. After returning to Paris he married Suzanne Duchamp.
- DAIMONIDES (See DOEHMANN, Carl Heinrich)
- DERMÉE, Paul (1886-1951)
Associated with the French Dada circles and the Surrealists; as a publisher he published Z (1920), Interventions and Le Mouvement Accéléré; co-published, with Le Corbusier and the painter Amédée Ozenfant, the journal L'Esprit Nouveau which appeared between 1920 and 1925.
- DIX, Otto (1891-1969)
In 1920 Otto Dix met George Grosz and, influenced by Dada, began incorporating collage elements into his works. He exhibited in the first Dada Fair in Berlin.
- DOEHMANN, Carl Heinrich (1892-1982)
Pseudonym Diamonides. Associated with the Berlin Dada group, and Walter Mehring, Mynona and his cousin and brother-in-law Anselm Ruest; friend of Richard Huelsenbeck.
- DUCHAMP, Marcel (1887-1968)
See on this site: Marcel Duchamp.
- EGGELING, Viking (1880-1925)
During World War I Viking Eggeling teaches in Zuirich, where he is introduced to the circle of Dadaists and creates first sketches for image rolls and musical painting; 1920 first film experiments and collaboration with Hans Richter [»]; moves to Berlin in 1921; 1925 premiere of the 'Diagonal-Symphonie'.
- EINSTEIN, Carl (1885-1940)
Associated with the Berlin Dada circles; co-published with John Höxter and George Grosz the magazine Der blutige Ernst [»].
- ÉLUARD, Paul (1895-1952)
Pseudonym of Eugène Grindel. Éluard was briefly involved with the Dada movement in Paris; publisher iof the magazine Proverbe (1920-1921) [»]; joined the Surrealists in 1924.
- ERBACH, Alois (1888-1972)
Participant of the First International Dada Fair - Otto Burchard Gallery, Berlin 1920.
- ERNST, Max (1891-1976)
See on this site: Max Ernst.
- EVOLA, Giulio (1898-1974)
- FLAKE, Otto (1880-1963)
Associated with the Dada circles in Zurich; co-published with Walter Serner and Tristan Tzara the magazine Der Zeltweg (1919) [»].
- FRAENKEL, Theodor (1896-1964)
Fraenkel had participated in the activities of Paris Dada, but abandoned Dada in favour of medicine; he remained close to Surrealism.
- FREYTAG-LORINGHOVEN, Elsa von (1874-1927)
Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven was an unconventional avant-garde artist and poet associated with Djuna Barnes and Dada New York. She published in Little Review, Broom, the Liberator, and transition.
[FPG (Grove/Greve) & FrL (Freytag-Loringhoven)]
- FRIEDLAENDER, Salomo (See Mynona)
- GIACOMETTI, Augusto (1877-1947)
- GOLDSTEIN, Carolina (See ARNAULD, Céline)
- GOLYSCHEFF, Jefim (1897-1970)
- GRAEFF, Werner (1901-1978)
[Werner Graeff website]
- GRIEBEL, Otto (1895-1972)
- GRINDEL , Eugène (= ELUARD, Paul)
- GROSS, Otto (1877-1920)
[International Otto Gross Society]
- GROSZ, George (1893-1959)
- GROSZ, Eva (1896-1960)
Wife of George Grosz. Participant of the First International Dada Fair - Otto Burchard Gallery, Berlin 1920.
- GRÜNWALD, Alfred Emanuel Ferdinand (See BAARGELD, Johannes Theodor)
- HAUSMANN, Raoul (1886-1971)
See on this site: Raoul Hausmann.
- HAVILAND, Paul Burty (1880-1950)
Paul Burty Haviland was born and raised in Paris. Following his graduation from Harvard University in 1901, Haviland joined the family business, serving as the New York representative of Haviland & Company of Limoges. After visiting '291' in 1908, he became an enthusiastic supporter of Stieglitz and the ideals of the Photo-Secession. In 1909 he began contributing articles to Camera Work.
Haviland's close association with Stieglitz (serving as assistant editor) and '291' stimulated him to experiment with photography. From 1908-1915 he produced a number of photographic portraits, figure studies, and city views. Images appeared in several issues of Camera Work (1909, 1912, 1914), and in 1910 he took part in the important exhibition of pictorial photography at the Albright Art Gallery, Buffalo. In 1915 he returned to France.
- HEARTFIELD, John (1891-1968)
- HECHT, Ben (1893-1964)
Participant of the First International Dada Fair - Otto Burchard Gallery, Berlin 1920.
- HENNINGS, Emmy (1885-1948)
- HENSCHKE, Alfred (See KLABUND)
- HERBIET, Georges (1895-1969)
- HERMAN, Maximilian (1895-1971)
Maximilian Herman (ps M.H. Maxy) studied painting at the Academy of Fine Arts in Bucharest. In 1922, he became a pupil of Arthur Segal in Berlin, where he discovered the avant-garde in all its diversity. There he was also exposed to Constructivism and joined the Expressionist Novembergruppe. In 1923 Maxy returned to Romania. As well as contributing to the magazine Contimporanul, he established a new movement in 1925 with the avant-garde magazine Integral, which sought to convey the essence of all the new directions in the art world. He also designed sets for a number of theatres. After 1941, race laws made it impossible for Maxy to exhibit his work. He became an instructor at the Jewish School of Arts, teaching Jewish students who had been expelled from official Romanian art academies. In Communist Romania, Maxy was the director of the National Art Museum in Bucharest from 1949 until his death in 1971 source: ].
- HERZFELDE, Helmut (see HEARTFIELD, John)
- HERZFELDE, Wieland (1896-1988)
- HÖCH, Hannah (1889-1978)
See on this site: Hannah Höch.
- HOERLE, Angelika (1899-1923)
- HOERLE, Heinrich (1895-1936)
- HUBBUCH, Karl (1891-1979)
- HUELSENBECK, Richard (1892-1974)
See on this site: Richard Huelsenbeck.
- ILIAZD (1894-1975)
Iliazd (pseudonym of Ilia Zdanevich) studied and worked in Moscow. He spent a year as an apprentice typographer. His Tbilisi designs for the covers of Kruchenykh’s Lacquered tights and Terentev’s Fakt are characterized by inventive typographic and graphic design that rivals that of the Dada group in Zurich. In Tbilisi he also wrote a number of plays (or dra) in a style derived from Ukrainian puppet theatre. The text was mostly written in 'transrational language' though it did include some Russian phrases and words, particularly scatological ones for a shock effect. A characteristic feature of these plays was that every word was given in phonetic transcription. He also experimented with the idea of simultaneous verse, where several voices speak different lines together. In 1919 he adopted the pseudonym Iliazd, In the early 1920s he went into exile in Paris where he published his play Le-Dantiu as a Beacon. [source: Breaking Panel 70].
- JANCO, Marcel (1895-1984)
Marcel Janco is regarded as one of Romania's foremost avant-garde artists. He was a co-founder of the Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich. He was also an editor of the leading Romanian avant-garde magazine, Contimporanul [»].
As one of the earliest Dadaists, he participated in many exhibitions and performances from 1916 onward. On returning to Bucharest in 1921, he became very influential in the development of the avant-garde in his native country. Janco remained affiliated with Contimporanul in the 1920s, while also contributing to other progressive art journals.
- JOOSTENS, Paul (1889-1960)
- JOSEPHSON, Matthew (1899-1978)
- JUNG, Franz (1888-1963)
- KASSÁK, Lajos (1887-1967)
Kassák’s extraordinary journey led him from uneducated metalworker to author, publisher, artist, theorist and designer - the self-educated charismatic leader of Hungarian Avant Garde. Kassák’s writings include free verse, visual poetry, experimental prose, articles and manifestos. His journals A tett [»] (The deed, 1915-1916) and MA [»] (Today, 1916-1925) displayed typographic virtuosity. Never renouncing his social-ethical stance he led his Activist circle in urging art to effect social change. He objected to the rules of any authority but his own. During his Vienna exile (1919-26) after his involvement in the failed Hungarian uprising of 1919, Kassák engaged in visual art, created collages and undertook design work for advertising. His Képarchitektúra (Picture architecture, 1921) manifesto, geometric linocuts and paintings exemplified Hungarian Constructivism. He had good connections with the international Avant Garde and his work was known across Europe. Eventually returning to Budapest, Kassák continued publishing journals, such as Dokumentum (1926-1927) and Munka (Work, 1928-1939), but with diminishing avant-garde spirit. [source: Breaking Panel 64].
- KLABUND (1890–1928)
- KOBBE, Georg E. (1902-1934)
Participant of the First International Dada Fair - Otto Burchard Gallery, Berlin 1920.
- KOCH, Georg ()
Unknown artist. Participant of the First International Dada Fair - Otto Burchard Gallery, Berlin 1920.
- KOK, Anthony (1882-1969)
- KOSTROWITZKY, Wilhelm Albert Vladimir Apollinaris (See APOLLINAIRE, Guillaume)
- >KÜPPER, Christian Emil Marie (See Theo van Doesburg)
- LACROIX, Adon
- LASKER-SCHÜLER, Else (1869-1945)
- LEWIS, Percy Wyndham (1882-1957)
In his plea for a commission in World War I, Lewis claimed that he had "organised the 'Cubist' invasion of England without the loss of a single Cube". After studying art at the Slade School and in Paris, he settled in London in 1908 and took part in Post-Impressionist exhibitions. He founded Vorticism 1913-1915 and set up the Rebel Art Centre in opposition to Fry’s Bloomsbury-influenced Omega Workshops. He distanced Vorticism from Futurism and picketed Marinetti’s London recitations in 1914. He founded the magazine Blast (1914-1915) and wrote its manifesto. His novel Tarr (1918) is a key modernist text. He had an infallible capacity for controversy, alienated the literary Sitwell family with his satirical The Apes of God (1930), and flirted with Fascism. [source: Breaking Panel ].
- LLOYD, Fabian (See CRAVAN, Arthur)
- LOEB, Harold Albert (1891-1974)
Harold Loeb was founder and chief editor of Broom [»] from 1921-1924. In 1917, he started working for the Sunwise bookstore in Greenwich Village, where he became acquainted with a number of writers and artists. Among them was Alfred Kreymborg, with whom he went to France to establish Broom. After editing Broom, Loeb devoted his time mainly to writing. He wrote several novels, and published The Way It Was: A Memoir (Criterion : New York 1959).
- MARINETTI, Filippo Tommaso (1876-1944)
Marinetti was the creator, promoter and financer of Futurism. He lived in Paris 1893-98, publishing symbolist poetry in French. In 1898 Marinetti moved to Milan, where he started the literary journal Poesia (1905-09). A car crash was the occasion of the creation of the first Futurist Manifesto, which appeared on the front page of Le Figaro (1909) and a series of performances in London, Moscow and St. Petersburg promoted Futurism across Europe. Other manifestos by him and fellow Futurist artists, writers and musicians followed. His Mafarka the Futurist (about an African Futurist) led to a trial for obscenity. He created ‘words in liberty’ which exploited the visual and aural qualities of poetry, as in Zang Tumb Tuuum (1914). He was an early supporter of Italian Fascism and died near the Swiss border in flight from the Italian Partisans [source: Breaking].
- MASSOT, Pierre de (1900-1969)
- MATTIS-TEUTSCH, Janos (1884-1960)
- MAXY, M.H. (See HERMAN, Maximilian)
- MEHRING, Walter (1896-1981)
- MEYER, Agnes Ernst (1887-1970)
Agnes Ernst first met Alfred Stieglitz and the 291 circle in 1908, when she was an enterprising freelance reporter for the New York Sun. After marrying the wealthy financier Eugene Meyer (1875-1959) in 1910, she became an avid art collector. In 1915 Meyer publish with Marius De Zayas and writer Paul Haviland the first issue of 291 [»]. Eugene and Agnes Meyer donated important works to the National Gallery beginning in 1958, including paintings by Paul Cézanne and Edouard Manet, sculptures by Constantin Brancusi, and watercolors by John Marin. [NGA]
- MICIC, Ljubomir (1882-1942)
The first artist to collaborate with Ljubomir Micic and to contribute to Zenit's original orientation towards Expressionism was Vilko Gecan (1894-1973). Micic's Zenitism was supported only by a small number of the youngest Yugoslav artists, who joined and left after varying period of collaboration. Mihailo S. Petrov (1901-1983) did linocuts of an expressionistic-abstract structure, wrote poems and published translations on abstract art for Zenit. From 1922-1925, Jo Klek's (Josip Seissel, 1904-1987) drawings, aquarelles and collages were the best representatives of Zenitist art. Micic's important mission was collecting and exhibiting avant-garde arts in Zenit editorial offices in Zagreb and Belgrade, and the organisation of Zenit international exhibition of new art in Belgrade 1924 [source: Breaking Label 182].
- MYNONA (1871-1946)
Salomo Friedlaender was born in Gollantsch in Posen, studied medicine, philosophy, German literature, archaeology, and art history in Munich, Berlin, and Jena between 1894 and 1902. In 1906, Friedlaender went to Berlin, starting to write under the literary name 'Mynona', an anagram of 'anonym' [= anonymous], poetry, which he published in books like Durch blaue Schleier (1908) and expressionist publications like Der Sturm and Die Aktion, being intimate with the Berlin expressionist circle of Herwarth Walden, Else Lasker-Schüler, and Samuel Lublinski. At the same time he wrote satirical and grotesque prose works (Rosa, die schöne Schutzmannsfrau, 1913; Mein Papa und die Jungfrau von Orleans, 1921). In 1933, he fled to Paris, where he died in 1946.
- OZENFANT, Amédée (1886-1966)
In 1915 Ozenfant founded the magazine L'Elan [»], which he edited until 1917. In 1917 he met the Swiss architect and painter Le Corbusier; together they articulated the doctrines of Purism in their book Après le cubisme. They both felt Cubism had become far too confused and decorative, believing in a more mechanical approach to art. With Le Corbusier he founded L'Esprit Nouveau [»] (1920–1925), the first periodical dedicated to the C20 Modernist aesthetic in 'all its manifestations'.
- PANSAERS, Clément (1885-1922)
- PÉRET, Benjamin (1899-1959)
- PETRY, Walter (1898-1932)
- PFEMFERT, Franz (1879-1954)
Franz Pfemfert, a left-wing political journalist, became editor of Der Demokrat in 1910 and founded the journal Die Aktion [»] in 1911. He also edited anthologies of Expressionist poetry, Aktions-Lyrik (1916-1922, published in his own Verlag Die Aktion), as well as Aktionsbücher der Aeternisten (1916-1921), with contributions by Franz Hardekopf and Carl Einstein, Politische Aktions-Bibliothek (1916-1930), and Der rote Hahn (1917-1925), with contributions by Ivan Goll, Franz Mehring and Johannes Becher. A communist opposed to social democracy, he later opposed stalinism. He emigrated to Czechoslovakia in 1933, to France in 1936, and to Mexico in 1941.
- PICABIA, Francis (1879-1953)<
See on this site: Francis Picabia.
- PISCATOR, Erwin (1893-1966)
- PREISS, Gerhard (1899-1919)
- RADNITZKY, Emmanuel (See RAY, Man)
- RAY, Man (1890-1976)
See on this site: Man Ray.
- REES, Adya van (1876-1959)
- REES, Otto van (1884-1957)
- REVERDY, Pierre (1889 - 1960)
In 1916 Reverdy founded the magazine Nord-Sud [»] with Max Jacob and Guillaume Apollinaire, which contained many Dadaist and then surrealist contributions.
- REYNOLDS, Mary (1891-1950)
- RIBEMONT-DESSAIGNES, Georges (1884-1974)
- RICHTER, Hans (1888-1976)
See on this site: Hans Richter.
- RIGAUT, Jacques (1898-1929)
- ROCHÉ, Henri-Pierre (1879-1959)
- ROCHE, Juliette (1884-1980)
- ROSENBLATT, Lou (1889-1970)
- ROSENSTOCK, Samuel (See TZARA, Tristan)
- RUBINER, Ludwig (1881-1920)
- RUEST, Anselm (1878-1943)
- SAMUEL, Ernst (See RUEST, Anselm)
- SATIE, Erik (1866-1925)
- SAUERMANN, Alfred ()
- SAUSER, Frédéric Louis (See CENDRARS, Blaise)
- SCHAD, Christian (1894-1982)
In 1914 Schad emigrated to Zurich, where Walter Serner introduced him to the Dadaist circle surrounding the Cabaret Voltaire [»]. Nevertheless, the paintings of this period – mainly of café or cabaret scenes – betray Cubist influences. In 1917 Schad moved to Geneva, where he produced works, showing greater Dadaist influence. It was also at this time that he devised his famous Schadographs – photograms created by placing objects (and sometimes texts) on light-sensitive paper and exposing them to light from different angles, so that the silhouettes of the objects were recorded on the paper. Decades later, this technique was to be repeatedly exploited by artists like Làszlò Moholy-Nagy and Man Ray. In 1920 Schad returned to Munich and moved to Berlin in 1927, where the majority of his celebrated ‘Neue Sachlichkeit’ portraits were painted.
- SCHAMBERG, Morton Livingstone (1881-1918)
After completing his education, Schamberg traveled through Europe. He returned to Philadelphia in 1910. By 1916 he begun a series of machine objects. Later that year Schamberg met Picabia and Duchamp and became a part of the Arensberg Group. In 1917 he created the first American Dada 'ready-made', an assemblage of plumbing pipes in a mitre box called 'God'. Schamber died from a flu epidemic in 1918.
- SCHLICHTER, Max ()
Dadameisterkoch. Participant of the First International Dada Fair - Otto Burchard Gallery, Berlin 1920.
- SCHLICHTER, Rudolf (1890-1955)
- SCHMALHAUSEN, Otto (1890-1958)
Artist in Berlin and a close friend of George Grosz. Exhibited at the First International DADA Fair in 1920. Schmallhausen was married to Lotte Peter, the younger sister of Grosz’s wife Eva.
- SCHOLZ, Georg (1890-1945)
- SCHWITTERS, Kurt (1887-1948)
See on this site: Kurt Schwitters.
- SEGAL, Arthur (1875-1944)
In 1892 Arthur Segal went to Berlin to study painting at the city's fine arts academy. In 1910 he had his first solo exhibition in Bucharest, where he introduced Romanians to modern art. In 1914 Segal moved to Ascona, Switzerland, where he became acquainted with other modern artists such as Hans Arp, Hugo Ball [»], and Tristan Tzara. Thanks to these connections, he took part in many Dada events. On returning to Berlin in 1920, he began to develop a style of his own. After Hitler's rise to power in 1933, the artist left Germany and settled in England. Segal died of a heart attack during a German bombardment in London.
- SEIWERT, Franz (1894-1933)
- SELIGMAN, Walter (See SERNER, Walter)
- SERNER, Walter (1889-1942)
- SOFFICI, Ardengo (1879-1964)
Like the artists Severini and Modigliani, Soffici was an important link between French and Italian culture. He lived in Paris between 1900 and 1907 where he exhibited in the Salon des Indépendants and earned a living by contributing to various journals. His friends included Picasso, Braque, Juan Gris, Max Jacob, Blaise Cendrars and Apollinaire. After suffering a spiritual crisis in 1907 he returned to Tuscany but continued to visit Paris until the outbreak of World War I. A strong advocate for a cultural renaissance in Tuscany, he contributed articles about the Parisian Avant Garde to the Florentine journals Leonardo and La Voce and in 1910 he organised the first Impressionist exhibition in Florence, the impact of which compares with Roger Fry’s London exhibition, 'Manet and the Post-Impressionists'. Together with Giovanni Papini, he founded Lacerba (1913-1915). [source: Breaking Panel 66].
- SOUPAULT, Philippe (1897-1990)
- SPENGEMANN, Christof (1877-1952)
- STUCKENSCHMIDT, Hans Heinz (1901-1988)
- SZITTYA, Emil (1886-1964)
Between 1909 and 1912, Emil Szittya lived in Paris, where he published in the periodical he edited with Blaise Cendrars, Les Hommes Nouveaux and Neue Menschen which he edited with Hans Richter. At this time he still participated in Freemason and anarchist organizations. He was in Brussels at the outbreak of war, then returned to Hungary, and then in early 1915 appeared in Zurich among antiwar activists. Wih Hugo Kersten and Walter Serner he edited the journal Der Mistral, of which three issues were published. Between 1915 and 1917 he published in the radical journal Új Nemzedék [= New Generation], in Pesti Futár [= Pest Courier] and Magyar Figyelo [= Hungarian Observer], and later in his own pamphlet-type journal Horizont. In 1927 he broke with his home country, Hungary and lived in Paris since.
- TAEUBER-ARP, Sophie (1889-1943)
- TEIGE, Karl (1900-1951)
Karel Teige was an artist, art critic and theoretician. He was the leader of Devetsil, the first Czech artistic movement to declare an explicitly political programme, and became the foremost figure in the Prague Avant Garde. Rejecting art inspired by transcendental ideals, he advocated a democratic concept of art in which typography and mechanical reproduction, as in his Constructivist ABC, replaced artistic individuality with anonymity. In his enthusiasm for Constructivism he proclaimed the supremacy of function over form and of man as the 'stylistic principle of Constructivism', and aimed to create a universal 'speech without words' that would transcend national boundaries. He is notable not only for his work as editor of the avant-garde journals ReD, Stavba and Disk, but also for his experiments with photomontage, typography and stage design, 'pictorial poems' uniting poetry and painting, and for the series of Surrealist collages which he executed in later life. [source: Breaking Panel 63].
- TZARA, Tristan (1896-1963)
See this site: Tristan Tzara.
- VACHÉ, Jacques (1896-1919)
- VAN DOESBURG, Theo (1883-1931)
Theo van Doesburg (pseudonym of Christiaan Emil Marie Küpper) was a Dutch painter, designer, writer, poet and architect. His early painting style was influenced by Impressionism. But in 1915 he met the artist Piet Mondrian and switched his approach to abstraction. He co-founded the 'De Stijl' movement in 1917 and devoted his career to spreading the group’s ideas, through his influential magazine De Stijl [»]. From 1922 to 1924 he taught at the Bauhaus. Under the name of his Dada persona, I.K. Bonset, he published the magazine Mecano [»] and wrote experimental poetry. In 1929, he moved to a studio in Paris and published a manifesto of Concrete art a year later. [source: Breaking ].
- VAN DOESBURG, Nelly (1899-1975)
- VAN OSTAIJEN, Paul (1896-1928)
- VINEA, Ion (1895-1964)
- VITRAC, Roger (1899-1952)
- WOOD, Beatrice (1893-1998)
- ZAYAS, Marius de (1880-1961)
Marius de Zayas arrived in New York in 1907 and within two years was exhibiting at Alfred Stieglitz's Fifth Avenue gallery, '291'. De Zayas arranged Pablo Picasso's first United States exhibition, held in 1911, and an exhibition of African sculpture at the same gallery in 1914.
In 1915 De Zayas and writers Paul Haviland and Agnes Ernst Meyer publish the first issue of 291 [»]. The same year, De Zayas opens The Modern Gallery, a commercial venture financed by Picabia, Haviland, and Eugene Meyer. In 1919, with the financial backing of Walter Arensberg De Zayas opened his own gallery, the De Zayas Gallery. This will prompt, in 1920, the creation of the Société Anonyme founded by Katherine Dreier, Man Ray, and Marcel Duchamp with the purpose to build its own permanent collection of international modern art. De Zayas remained faithful to Dada until de end. In 1923, when many have left Dada, he will associate with Picabia and Paul de Massot in 'La pomme de pin' to continue Dada as a secret society faithful to its true origins.[NGA]
- ZDANEVICH, Ilia (See ILIAZD)
- IMAGE CREDITS
banner: (detail) Raoul Hausmann, 'Mechanischer Kopf' (Der Geist unserer Zeit), 1918 [Collection Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris].