DADA & Modernist Magazines


  • Zenit Zenit (Zenith) was the most important avant-garde magazine published in the former Yugoslavia and one of the most significant publications of the broader European avant-garde movement of the early 20th century. It was launched in February 1921 by the artist Ljubomir Micic (1895-1971) and published monthly in Zagreb and Belgrade until December 1926, when it was banned by the authorities. A total of 43 issues were published, as well as one poster, 'Zenitismus', and one issue of a daily Zenit newspaper dated September 23, 1922. 'Zenitism' was an avant-garde movement born around the magazine. The Zenitist Manifesto of June 1921 proclaimed humanist and anti-war ideals, and called for the creation of a new and united Europe. Besides Micic, noteworthy contributors to Zenit included Milos Crnjanski, Dusan Matic, Stanislav Vinaver, Pablo Picasso, Alexander Blok, Jaroslav Seifert, Wassily Kandinsky, Vladimir Tatlin, Kazimir Malevich, Tommaso Marinetti, Marc Chagall, Ilya Ehrenburg, and many others.


National Library of Serbia

Cover N° 11 (1922) [Collection National Library of Serbia]


  • Zenit
    N° 1 (1921) - N° 43 (1926)
    Edited by Ljubomir Micic. Besides Ljubomir Micic, other people have taken part in the editing, like Bosko Tokin, Rastko Petrovic, Branko Ve Poljanski and Ivan Goll
    Published in Zagreb (1921-1923) and Belgrade (1924-1926)
    Special Numbers
    • One complete issue was devoted to young Czech artists
    • N° 17/18 special issue dedicated to the new Russian Art, edited by Ilya Ehrenburg and El Lissitzky.
  • Dada Global 17-20.
  • main contributors
    The most significant authors apart from Micic were Ivan Goll, Bosko Tokin, Branko Ve Poljanski [Branko Micic], Dragan Aleksic and Marijan Mikac, Milos Crnjanski, Dusan Matic, Stanislav Vinaver, Alexander Blok, Jaroslav Seifert, Wassily Kandinsky. The visual contributions by Josif Klek [Josip Seissel] and Mihailo S. Petrov epitomized Zenitist art and painting.


  • [online] Digital National Library of Serbia. The Digital Collection of Zenit is created out of the complete set of the Zenit Magazine, legacy of the avant-garde artist Ljubomir Micic (1895-1971), kept in the NLS Special Collection Department.
  • [online] Digital Dada Library, International Dada Archive: nr. 17/18.
  • [online Monoskop.
  • [printed] The monograph Zenit 1921-1926 includes studies about literary and visual culture of the Zenit, the complete chronicles of the periodical, biographies of all the contributors, a bibliography, a list of literature on Zenit and zenithism, as well as a valuable webography. The book was printed in full color, on 530 pages, and equipped with illustrations from the magazine, as well as with photographs of contemporary celebrities. Some of the photographs appear for the first time.

secondary literature

  • Jasmina Cubrilo
    'Yugoslav avant-garde review Zenit (1921-1926) and its links with Berlin', in Centropa 12 (September 2012) 3.
  • Vidosava Golubovic
    'The Zenit Periodical (1921-1926)', published on the site of Zenit 1921-1926 (Belgrade 2008) [online]; available at <> [accessed 2 January 2017].
  • Milan Grba
    'Belgrade', in Stephen Bury (ed.), Breaking the Rules. The Printed Face of the European Avant Garde 1900-1937 (The British Library : London 2007) 74-76.
  • Dragan Kujundzic and Jasna Jovanov
    'Yougo-Dada', in Gerald Janecek and Toshiharu Omuka (eds.), The Eastern Dada Orbit. Crisis and the Arts. The History of Dada, 4 (New York 1998) 58 ff.
  • Laurel Seely and Tyrus Miller
    'Avant-garde journals in the Yugoslav crucible: Zenit (Zagreb 1921-3; Belgrade 1924-6); Zagreb: Dada-Jok (1922), Dada-Tank (1922), Dada Jazz(1922); Novi Sad: Út (1922-5); Ljubljana: Svetokret (1921), Rdeci pilot (1922), Tank (1927)', in The Oxford Critical and Cultural History of Modernist Magazines. Volume III: Europe 1880 - 1940 / edited by Peter Brooker, Sascha Bru, Andrew Thacker, and Christian Weikop (Oxford University Press : Oxford etc. 2013) 1099-1127.
  • Irina Subotic
    'The avant-garde visionary and utopian model proposed by Ljubomir Micic and his journal Zenit', in Balkan Studies 3-4 (1996) 54-57.
  • Irina Subotic
    'The Visual Culture of the Zenit Periodical and Its Publications', published on the site of Zenit 1921-1926 (Belgrade 2008) [online]; available at <> [accessed 2 January 2017].
  • Irina Subotic
    '"Zenit" and Zenitism' / translated by Ann Vasic, in The Journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts 17, Yugoslavian Theme Issue (Autumn 1990) 14-25.