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ready-mades catalogue

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  • Bicycle Wheel, 1913/1964 [Centre Georges Pompidou] ROUE DE BICYCLETTE, 1913
    [= Bicycle Wheel] 64.8 cm. diameter, mounted on painted wooden stool (60.2 cm. high). The original 1913 was left behind when Duchamp sailed to New York in 1915. He made a replica in 1916 (also lost). In 1951 he made a third version for the exhibition 'Climax in 20th Century Art, 1913'. This replica is now in the Sidney and Harriet Janis Collection, housed at the Museum of Modern Art, New York. Authorized replicas were also built in 1960 based on the 1916 version, by Ulf Linde and Per Olof Ultvedt (Moderna Museet, Stockholm) and in 1963 (Collection Richard Hamilton, now lost).

    In 1964 Arturo Schwarz, Duchamp’s dealer in Milan, produced an edition of 8. At the time they were issued, the complete set was priced at $25,000. So far as is known, there were only two takers: the National Gallery of Canada, and the Cordier & Ekstrom Gallery in New York.
    Schwarz, no. 278
    • Literature:
      Lars Blunck, 'Between Gadget and Re-made. The Revolving History of the Bicycle Wheel' / translated by Jan Wagner, in tout-fait. Marcel Duchamp Studies Online Journal issue 3 (2000) [online] available at <http://www.toutfait.com/online_journal_details.php?postid=989> [accessed 24 June 2011].
    • Yassine Ghalem, 'What makes the Bicycle Wheel a Readymade', in tout-fait. Marcel Duchamp Studies Online Journal issue 2 (2000) [online] available at <http://www.toutfait.com/online_journal_details.php?postid=1346> [accessed 24 June 2011].
      'Response' to 'What Makes the Bicycle Wheel a Readymade?'. Rhonda Roland Shearer's response to Yassine Ghalem's letter to the editor.
    • Jake Kennedy, 'Modernist (Im)mobilities. Marcel Duchamp, Samuel Beckett, and the Avant-Garde Bike', in tout-fait. Marcel Duchamp Studies Online Journal perpetual (2005).
    • Rhonda Roland Shearer, Why is Marcel Duchamp's Bicycle Wheel Shaking On Its Stool?. Published on the site of Art Science Research Laboratory (December 1999) [online] available at <http://www.asrlab.org/articles/why_bicycle_wheel.php> [accessed 24 June 2011].
  • Three Standard Stoppages. 1913-14/1963 [Moderna Museet, Stockholm] TROIS STOPPAGES ETALON, 1913-1914

    [= Three Standard Stoppages] Assemblage; three threads glued to three painted canvas strips (each 13,3 x 120 cm.), mounted on a glass panel (18.4 x 125.4 cm.); three wood slatsaveraging 6,2 x 113 cm. shaped along one edge to match the curves of the threads. The whole fitted in wooden box. Original version, 1913-14. The original is housed at the Museum of Modern Art, New York NY. Katherine S. Dreier Bequest, 1953.

    Replicas were made in 1963 by Ulf Linde for the Moderna Museet, Stockholm and in the same year for the Norton Simon Museum, Pasadena. The 4th version was produced by Gallerie Schwarz in an edition of 8.
    Schwarz, no. 282.

    • Literature:
      Rhonda Roland Shearer and Stephen Jay Gould, 'Hidden in Plain Sight. Duchamp's 3 Standard Stoppages, More Truly a "Stoppage" (An Invisible Mending) Than We Ever Realized', in tout-fait. Marcel Duchamp Studies Online Journal issue 1 (1999) [online] available at <http://www.toutfait.com/online_journal_details.php?postid=677> [accessed 24 June 2011].
  • Pharmacie 1914 PHARMACIE, 1914
    [= Pharmacy] Rectified readymade: gouache on a commercial print (26.2 x 19.2 cm.). Original 1914, now in the Collection Arakawa, New York. The readymade was produced in an edition of 3, 2 of which have been lost. Reproductions wwere made in Paris, 1941 and in New York, 1945 (100 numbered limited editions in View magazine Vol. No.1 (March 1945)).
    Schwarz, no. 283.
  • Bottle Rack (Bottle Dryer), 1914 EGOUTTOIR (or PORTE-BOUTEILLES), 1914 [= Bottle Rack (Bottle Dryer)] Readymade. The original purchased from the Bazar de l'Hotel de Ville, 1914 is lost. Another rack was bought by Duchamp for his sister Suzanne in Paris, 1921. This copy is now in the Jean-Jacques Lebel Collection, Paris.

    Duchamp and Man Ray bought another copy in 1936 for the exhibition at the Galerie Charles Ratton, Paris. Man Ray photographed it for the special exhibition issue of Cahiers d'Art 11, nr. 1/2 (1936) 42. The present location of this copy is unknown.
    A third copy was bought by Robert Rauschenberg in 1960 (and now in the Robert Rauschenberg Collection). In 1961 Duchamp selected a rack for Alexina Duchamp (now on loan in the Philadelphia Museum of Art). The Moderna Museet, Stockholm has a copy made in 1963 for the Duchamp retrospective. Another copy from 1963 was donated to the Norton Simon Museum in Pasadena in 1968 by Irving Blum. A replica is in the 1964 Arturo Schwarz edition.
    Schwarz, no. 306.

  • PULLED AT FOUR PINS, 1915
    New York, 1915 (lost).
    Schwarz, no. 331.
  • Shovel, 1915 IN ADVANCE OF BROKEN ARM, 1915 or SHOVEL
    Readymade. Original New York lost.

    In 1945 Duchamp bought another at request of Katherine S. Dreier for the Société Anonyme exhibition, Yale University Art Gallery (The Société Anonyme Collection is now housed there). The Moderna Museet, Stockholm has a copy made in 1963 for the Duchamp retrospective. A replica is in the 1964 Arturo Schwarz edition.
    Schwarz, no. 332.

  • PEIGNE, 1916
    [= Comb] Readymade. Original in The Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia. The Louise and Walter Arensberg Collection. A second version was made by Ulf Lindgren for the Duchamp retrospective atr the Moderna Museet, Stockholm in 1963. A replica is in the 1964 Arturo Schwarz edition.
    Schwarz, no. 339.
    • literature
      Thomas Girst, 'Von Readymades und "Asstricks". Forschungsergebnisse des Art Science Research Laboratory zu drei Werken Marcel Duchamps', in tout-fait. Marcel Duchamp Studies Online Journal issue 2 (2000).
  • With Hidden Noise, 1916 [Philadelphia Museum of Art] A BRUIT SECRET, 1916
    [= With Hidden Noise] Assisted readymade: ball of twine between 2 brass plates, joined by 4 long screws, containing a small unknown object added by Walter Arensberg (12.9 x 13 x 11.4 cm.). Original 1916. The Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia. The Louise and Walter Arensberg Collection.

    The Moderna Museet, Stockholm has a replica made in 1963 for the Duchamp retrospective. A replica is in the 1964 Arturo Schwarz edition.
    Schwarz, no. 340.

  • THE BATTLE SCENE
    Mural in the Café des Artistes, New York 1916. Original destroyed.
    Schwarz, no. 341.
  • PLIANT DE VOYAGE, 1916
    [= Traveler's Folding Item] Readymade. Original 1916 lost. The Moderna Museet, Stockholm has a replica made in 1963 for the Duchamp retrospective. A replica is in the 1964 Arturo Schwarz edition.
    Schwarz, no. 342.
  • APOLINERE ENAMELED, 1917
    Rectified readymade: pencil on cardboard and painted tin. Original New York 1917 in The Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia. The Louise and Walter Arensberg Collection. A replica is in the 1964 Arturo Schwarz edition.
    Schwarz, no. 344.
  • FOUNTAIN, 1917 (New York)
    Readymade: urinal, purchased from "Motts Works" company in new York and signed "R. Mutt". Original 1917 lost.

    The only surviving photograph was taken by Alfred Stieglitz shortly after Fountain was rejected by the jury. The photograph was used as an illustration in The Blind Man, May 1917.

    In 1950 another copy was bought by Sidney Janis in Paris at the request of Duchamp for an exhibition in New York. Private collection. More copies were selected for an auction in 1953, the retrospective exhibition in the Moderna Musset, Stockholm 1963. A replica is in the 1964 Arturo Schwarz edition.
    Schwarz, no. 345.

    • Literature:
      Michael Betacourt, 'The Richard Mutt Case: Looking for Marcel Duchamp's Fountain', published for Art Science Research Laboratory (n.d.) [online] available at <http://asrlab.org/archive/articles/betacourt.htm> [accessed 24 June 2011].
    • William A. Camfield, Marcel Duchamp Fountain / introduction by Walter Hopps (Menil Collection / Houston Fine Arts Press : Houston 1989). Catalog of an exhibition organized by Menil Collection, originally scheduled for December 15, 1987-May 15, 1988.
    • William A. Camfield, 'Marcel Duchamp’s Fountain. Aesthetic object, icon, or anti-art?', in Thierry de Duve (ed.), The Definitively unfinished Marcel Duchamp (Nova Scotia College of Art and Design : Halifax NS / MIT Press : Cambridge MA 1991) 133-178.
    • William A. Camfield, 'Marcel Duchamp’s Fountain. Its history and aesthetics in the context of 1917', in Rudolf Kuenzli and Francis M. Naumann (eds.), Marcel Duchamp. Artist of the century (MIT Press : Cambridge MA 1989) 64-94.
    • Leland de La Durantaye, 'Readymade Remade. Pierre Pinoncelli and the Legacy of Duchamp's "Fountains"', in Cabinet Magazine Issue 27, 'Mountains' (Fall 2007) 27-32 [online] available at <http://www.cabinetmagazine.org/issues/27/durantaye.php> [accessed 24 June 2011].
      Includes 'An Overview of the Seventeen Known Versions of Fountain', 28-29.

  • TREBUCHET, 1917
    [= Trap] Readymade. Original 1917 lost. A replica is in the 1964 Arturo Schwarz edition.
    Schwarz, no. 350.
  • Hat Rack PORTE CHAPEAU, 1917
    [= Hat Rack] Readymade. Original 1917 lost. A replica is in the 1964 Arturo Schwarz edition.
    Schwarz, no. 351.
    • Literature:
      Rhonda Roland Shearer, 'Why the Hatrack is and/or is not Readymade. With Interactive Software, Animations, and Videos for Readers to Explore' / with Gregory Alvarez, Robert Slawinski, Vittorio Marchi and text box by Stephen Jay Gould, in tout-fait. Marcel Duchamp Studies Online Journal issue 3 (2000) [online] available at <http://www.toutfait.com/online_journal_details.php?postid=1100> [accessed 24 June 2011].
  • FRENCH MILITARY PAPER, 1918
    The present location unknown.
    Schwarz, no. 352.
  • CORKSCREW'S SHADOW, 1920
    Lost or unrealized?
    Schwarz, no. 353.
  • HAND STEREOSCOPY, 1918-1919 or Handmade Stereopticon Slide
    Buenos Aires. Rectified readymade: pencil over photographic stereopticon slide, each 5.7 x 5.7 cm. The original is now housed at the The Museum of Modern Art, New York NY. Katherine S. Dreier Bequest, 1953.
    Schwarz, no. 365.
  • READYMADE MALHEUREUX, 1919
    [= Unhappy Readymade] Buenos Aires-Paris. Readymade: geometry textbook. Original lost or destroyed. A photograph survived. The photograph is probably taken by Jean Crotti or Suzanne Duchamp.
    Schwarz, no. 367, 368.
  • L.H.O.O.Q. L.H.O.O.Q., 1919 or MONA LISA
    Paris. Rectified readymade: pencil on a reproduction (19.7 x 12.4 cm.). Original in private collection, Paris. A reproduction was made in 1920 and published in 391 (March 1920). Later Duchamp drew in the missing beard and added an inscription at the bottom: "Moustaches par Picabia, barbe par Marcel Duchamp".

    A large-scale replica was made in 1930 for Louis Aragon on the occasion of the exhibition 'La Peinture au défi' and in 1940 a color reproduction for 'The Box in a Valise'. In 1958 Duchamp added the mustache and goatee to a reproduction of the Mona Lisa printed in the Enciclopedia Universal (Hijos de J. Espasa, Madrid), now in the Collection Antoni Tapiès. The Collection Dorothea Tanning contains a handpainted copy of the Mona Lisa with mustache and goatee added painted in oil. Arturo Schwarz made 38 replicas in 1964, printed to be inserted in Pierre de Massot's Marcel Duchamp, propos et souvenirs (Gallerie Schwarz : Milan 1965).
    Schwarz, no. 369.

    • Literature:
      Pierre Lartigue, 'L.H.O.O.Q.', in Étant donné Marcel Duchamp n°3 (2001).
    • Pierre Lartigue, 'Mona Lisa mise à nu', in Étant donné Marcel Duchamp n°3 (2001).
    • Francis M. Naumann, 'L.H.O.O.Q. de Marcel Duchamp. La fabrication d'une réplique originale', in Étant donné Marcel Duchamp n°3 (2001).
    • Theodore Reff, 'Duchamp & Leonardo : L.H.O.O.Q.-alikes', in Art in America 65, no. 1 (1977) 82-93. Examines the similarities in the works and thought of artists Marcel Duchamp and Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), especially comparing Leonardo's work, Mona Lisa, with Duchamp's L.H.O.O.Q., 15th and 20th centuries.

  • TZANCK CHECK, 1919
    Enlarged handmade check, presented to Dr. Tzanck in payment for dental work. Collection Arturo Schwarz, Milan.
    Schwarz, no. 374.
  • Paris Air, 1919 [Philadelphia Museum of Art] PARIS AIR, 1919 or AIR DE PARIS (50 cc of Paris Air)
    Readymade. The original is broken and later restored. Now housed at The Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia. The Louise and Walter Arensberg Collection. In 1949 another copy was selected by Henri-Pierre Roché at Duchamps request to replace the broken original. In 1963 a replica was made for the Marcel Duchamp retrospective, Moderna Museet Stckholm. A replica is in the 1964 Arturo Schwarz edition.
    Schwarz, no. 375.
    • Literature:
      Thomas Girst and Rhonda Roland Shearer, '"Paris Air" or "Holy Ampule"? (with audio and video)', in tout-fait. Marcel Duchamp Studies Online Journal issue 1 (1999). Tobias Else, '"Infusion Ball" or "Holy Ampule"?', Tobias Else responds to '"Paris Air" or "Holy Ampule"?' (with a reply by Rhonda Roland Shearer)', in tout-fait. Marcel Duchamp Studies Online Journal issue 2 (2000) [online] available at <http://www.cabinetmagazine.org/issues/27/durantaye.php> [accessed 24 June 2011].
  • FRESH WIDOW, 1920
    Miniature French window, painted wood frame and 8 panes of glass, covered with black leather. (77.5 x 45 cm.) on wood sill. The original is now in The Museum of Modern Art, New York NY. Katherine S. Dreier Bequest, 1953. A replica was made in 1961 for the Moderna Museet, Stockholm. A third version is a replica in the 1964 Arturo Schwarz edition.
    Schwarz, no. 376.
  • Dust Breeding ELEVAGE DE POUSSIERE, 1920
    [= Dust Breeding] Readymade: photograph by Man Ray and Marcel Duchamp. The photograph records accumulation of dust on the lower section of the 'Large Glass'. Duchamp later cleaned the Glass except for the area occupied by the 'Sieves', where he affixed the dust with varnish, giving them "a kind of color" [cited Anne d'Harnoncourt and Kynaston McShine (eds.), Marcel Duchamp (New York 1972, 1989)].
    Schwarz, no. 382.
  • Belle Haleine BELLE HALEINE, EAU DE VOILETTE, 1921 or Beautiful Breath, Veil Water
    Assisted readymade: perfume bottle with label, in oval box (16.3 x 11.2 cm.). Private collection, Paris.
    Schwarz, no. 388.
    • Literature:
      Bonnie Jean Garner, 'Duchamp Bottles Belle Greene. Just Desserts For His Canning (with text boxes by Stephen Jay Gould)', in tout-fait. Marcel Duchamp Studies Online Journal perpetual (2008) [online] available at <http://www.toutfait.com/online_journal_details.php?postid=866> [accessed 24 June 2011].
    • Steve Jackson, 'BELLE da COSTA GREENE. A Biographical Sketch of a Friend & Acquaintance of Aleister Crowley', in tout-fait. Marcel Duchamp Studies Online Journal perpetual (2005) [online] available at <http://www.toutfait.com/online_journal_details.php?postid=4325> [accessed 24 June 2011].
      Response to Bonnie Jean Garner.
  • Why Not Sneeze Rose Sélavy? 1921 WHY NOT SNEEZE ROSE SELAVY? 1921
    Assisted readymade: painted metal birdcage, 152 marble cubes in the form of sugar cubes with thermometer and cuttlefishbone (12.4 x 22.2 x 16.2 cm.). Original in The Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia. The Louise and Walter Arensberg Collection. Replica made in 1963 for the Moderna Museet, Stockholm. A third version is a replica in the 1964 Arturo Schwarz edition.
    Schwarz, no. 391.
  • LA BAGARRE D'AUSTERLITZ, 1921
    [= The Brawl at Austerlitz] Miniature window: oil on wood and glass (62.8 x 28.7 x 6.3 cm.). Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, Stuttgart.
    Schwarz, no. 397.
  • THE NON-DADA, 1922
    Collection Gabrielle Keiller, London.
    Schwarz, no. 402.
  • WANTED/$2,000 REWARD, 1923
    Rectified readymade: 2 photographs of Duchamp, pasted on joke "Wanted" poster (49.5 x 35.5 cm.). Collection Louise Hellstrom.
    Schwarz, no. 403.
  • OBLIGATIONS POUR LA ROULETTE DE MONTE CARLO, 1924
    [= Monte Carlo Bond] Photo-collage on colored lithograph (31.1 x 19.7 cm.). The Museum of Modern Art, New York NY.
    Schwarz, no. 406.
  • DOOR, 11 RUE LARREY, 1927
    Wooden door made by a carpenter following Duchamp's specifications (220 x 62.7 cm.). Collection Fabio Sargentini, Rome. Replica made by Pontus Hultén and Daniel Spoerri for the 1961 Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam exhibition. In 1963 a new version was made to replace the original one (purchased by Cordier & Ekstrom, New York).
    Schwarz, no. 426.
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  • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCE
    Arturo Schwarz (ed.), The complete works of Marcel Duchamp / by Arturo Schwarz. Rev. and expanded paperback ed. (Delano Greenidge Editions : New York 2000). Includes bibliographic references (p. 923-954) and index. On this page cited as Schwarz.
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  • IMAGE CREDITS
    banner: portrait Marcel Duchamp [Photo Richard Avedon].