Arthur Cravan attacks, in his journal Maintenant (March-April), the aesthetics of modern art.
Marcel and Julius Janco move to Zurich and enter the University of Zurich.
May. Hugo Ball and his wife Emmy Hennings arrive from Germany.
March. The artistic atmosphere is influenced by the presence of foreign artists, such as Marcel Duchamp, Albert Gleizes, Edgard Varèse, Francis Picabia and others. Marcel Duchamp becomes the mental father of the New York dada-group, consisting essentially of the Stieglitz-group with its journal 291 (edited by Paul Haviland and Marius de Zayas).
The fifth and last number of Cravan's Maintenant appears.
Switzerland, neutral during the world war, becomes a place of refuge for all kind of refugees. The city becomes the centre of various movements against the war, the meeting-place of Russian revolutionaries, and of many anti-war poets and painters. Pacifistic publications appear. Hans Arp, Hugo Ball, Tristan Tzara settle in Zurich.
Marcel Janco enters the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule. His brother George joins the Janco brothers in Zurich.
November: Exhibition of works by Arp, Otto and Adya van Rees at the Galerie Tanner.
The residence of Walter C. Arensberg is the meeting-place of Marcel Duchamp, Picabia, Man Ray, and De Zayas for preparing the 'Independent Exhibition'. American artists as Walter Pach, Glackens and George Bellows take part in it.
January. Publication of SIC, a journal showing dadaist tendencies, edited by Pierre-Albert Birot.
Foundation of the 'Cabaret Voltaire' by Hugo Ball.
February 5. First performance of the Cabaret Voltaire on February 5th. Hans Arp, Hugo Ball, brothers Janco, Arthur Segal and Tristan Tzara participate in the opening.
February 26. Huelsenbeck arrives in Zurich.
March 30. Gala night at Cabaret Voltaire. Huelsenbeck, Janco and Tzara recite a simultaneous poem of their own creation.
April. The word 'dada' is discovered.
June. The publication of the first, and only, issue of Cabaret Voltaire appears. Exhibition at the Cabaret Voltaire, showing works by Hans Arp, Marcel Janco, August Macke, Modigliani, Eli Nadelmann, Max Oppenheimer, Picasso, Otto van Rees, Marcel Slodki, Arthur Segal and others.
July 14. On the occasion of the first 'Dada Soirée' in the Zunfthaus zur Waag, Tzara reads aloud his first 'Dada Manifesto'. Tristan Tzara's book La première Aventure céleste de M. Antipyrine, with coloured wood-cuts by Marcel Janco, is published in the 'Collection Dada'.
September. Huelsenbeck's Phantastische Gebete [= Fantastic Prayers], with wood-cuts by Arp, are published in the 'Collection Dada'.
October. 'Schalaben Schalomai Schalamezomai' by Richard Huelsenbeck, with 4 drawings by Arp, appears in the 'Collection Dada'.
Publication of the first 4 numbers of the journal 391 [»] by Picabia.
Foundation of the Stijl Groep.
Duchamp publishes his journals The Blind Man and Rongwrong. Picabia publishes together with Walter Arensberg the journal 391 (numbers 5-7). Picabia leaves New York. Man Ray creates his first 'Rayogrammes'. On the occasion of the 'First Annual Exhibition of the Society of Independent Artists', Duchamp presents a urinal made of china and called 'Fontaine' [= Fountain], signed with "R. Mutt".
Paul Reverdy publishes Nord-Sud a journal showing dadaist tendencies.
January. Huelsenbeck returns from Zurich to Berlin.
January 28th. The Neue Zürcher Zeitung writes among other things: "At the moment, there are works of abstract art to be seen in the Salon Corray (Bahnhofstrasse 19).
March 18: Hugo Ball writes in his diary: "Together with Tzara, I have taken over the rooms of the 'Corray Gallery' (Bahnhofstrasse 19). Yesterday I opened the 'Dada Gallery' with a 'Sturm'-exhibition. It is the continuation of the last year's cabaret idea ..."
March 23. Opening-celebration of the Galerie Dada. Programme: Abstract dances (by Sophie Taeuber, verses by Ball and masks by Arp).- Frédééric Glauser: verses - Emmy Hennings: verses - Hans Heusser: compositions - Olly Jacques: prose by Mynona - H.L. Neitzel: verses by Hans Arp - Perottet: new music - Tristan Tzara: Negro verses - Claire Walter: expressionistic dances.
March 24. Tristan Tzara's lecture 'L'expressionisme et l'art abstrait'.
March 31. Lecture by Dr. W. Jollos about Paul Klee at the Galerie Dada.
April 7. Lecture by Hugo Ball about Kandinsky.
April 14. Fête of the Galerie Dada, II. Soirée ('Sturm'-Soirée).
April 28. III. Dada evening 'Abend Neuer Kunst' [= Evening of New Art]. Hugo Ball discovers in the audience Sacharoff, Mary Wigman, Clotilde von Derp, Marianne von Werefkin, Javlensky, Graf Kessler and Elisabeth Bergner.
April 9-30. Exhibition at the Galerie Dada with works of Albert Bloch, Baumann, Max Ernst, Lyonel Feininger, Kandinsky, Johannes Itten, Kokoschka, Ottokar Kubin, Georg Muche, Maria Uhden.
April 1-May 6: 'Exhibition of Independent Artists' at the Grand Central Palace.
May: Huelsenbeck's article 'Der Neue Mensch' [= The New Man], which he publishes in the Neue Jugend, may be considered as a preparation for his dada activities in Berlin.
May. III. exhibition at the Galerie Dada, presenting works of Hans Arp, Fritz Baumann, Chirico, Helbig, Janco, Klee, O. Lüthy, A. Macke, Modigliani, Prampolini, van Rees, Mme. van Rees, von Rebay, Hans Richter, A. Segal, Marcel Slodki and J. von Tscharner. On May 16th Hugo Ball writes in his diary: "Tomorrow, Thursday, I shall do a guiding through our new exhibition of graphic art, embroideries and reliefs ... The debts of the gallery are 3l5 Swiss franks."
May l2. Private soirée 'Alte und Neue Kunst'[= Old and New Art].
May 25. Hans Heusser: Music evening with his own compositions.
June 7. Hugo Ball writes in his diary: "Strange things happen - while we had our cabaret in Zurich, Spiegelgasse l, there lived on the other side of the same Spiegelgasse, no. 6, if I am not mistaken, Mr. Ulianov Lenin. Every evening he had to listen to our tirades and our music, whether he enjoyed it or not - I don't know. And while we opened our gallery in the Bahnhofstrasse, the Russians went off to Petersburg to get the revolution going."
July. Publication of Dada No. 1 as a continuation of Cabaret Voltaire.
December. Publication of Dada No. 2.
October. Picabia arrives from New Yorkb via Barcelona.
Foundation of the artists' club 'Das Neue Leben'[= The New Life]. Its members among others are: Hans Arp, Fritz Baumann, Augusto Giacometti, Marcel Janco, Oskar Lüthy, Otto Morach, Jakob Mumenthaler, Anna Probst, Niklaus Stöcklin, Sophie H. Taeuber.
Max Ernst meets Baargeld.
Aragon, Breton, Eluard, Soupault, Ribemont-Dessaignes receive copies of the Zurich dada journal and they are immediately interested in the dada movement.
Publications of the journals Club Dada and Der Dada. The most important collaborators: Johannes Baader, George Grosz, Richard Huelsenbeck, Raoul Hausmann, Franz Jung, John Heartfield, Walter Mehring, Gerhard Preiss.
March. First public dada-appearance. Huelsenbeck makes his first speech in the hall of the New Secession.
April. Club Dada is founded. First meeting April 12, at which Huelsenbeck reads a manifesto, signed by among others Tzara, Hausmann and George Grosz. One issue of the journal Club Dada, is published and edited by Mehring, Huelsenbeck, Jung and Hausmann.
June. Kurt Schwitters meets Arp, which leads to a close association with the Zurich dadaists.
July. Tristan Tzara's 25 poèmes with 10 wood-cuts by Arp, comes out in the Collection Dada.
July 23. Soirée Tristan Tzara in the Zunfthaus zur Meise.
September. Exhibition 'Die Neue Kunst' in the art saloon Wolfsberg (Hans Arp, Fritz Baumann, Marcel Janco, Hans Richter, P.R. Henning, Otto Morach and others). The ZÜrcher Post writes about the exhibition: "However the personal attitude to this kind of art may be, there are two things, nobody can deny: a solemn conviction and artistic boldness."
December. Dada No. 3 appears. For the first time with the collaboration of Picabia, who has got to Zurich via Barcelona and Lausanne. Also with contributions by the Frenchmen: Dermée, Reverdy and Pierre-Albert Birot.
The dada movement is grouped round Kurt Schwitters and the publisher Paul Steegemann. Kurt Schwitters publishes his 'Anna Blume' and makes his first 'Merz' collages.
Hans Arp, Max Ernst and Baargeld are experimenting together. Foundation of the dada-group in Cologne. Baargeld publishes his magazin/pamphlet Der Ventilator. Max Ernst and Baargeld bring out the Bulletin D. At the same time a group called 'Stupid' is formed in Cologne. Members as Heinrich Hoerle, Angelika Hoerle, Anton räderscheidt, Franz W. Seiwert belong to this group, which shows dadaist tendencies. Hans Arp and Max Ernst make the dada-group in Cologne - from the artistic point of view - the most considerable one of Germany.
The journal Der Ventilator is prohibited by the British Occupation Army in the Rhineland.
February 6. Dada manifesto Dadaisten gegen Weimar appears.
March. Foundation of the journal Littérature, edited by Aragon, Breton, Soupault. Tristan Tzara collaborates from No. 2 onward.
June. Raoul Hausmann founds the review Der Dada (3 issues published 1919-1920).
April 9. Dada soirée in the Saal zur Kaufleuten. Foundation of the group of the 'Die radikale Künstler', with the following committee-members: Hans Arp (Alsace), Fritz Baumann (Basel), Viking Eggeling (Sweden), Augusto Giacometti (Zurich), Walter Helbig (Dresden), P.R. Henning (Berlin), Marcel Janco (Roumania), Hans Richter (Berlin) and Otto Morach (Zurich).
May. The Dada-anthology (Dada No. 4-5) appears.
October. The only specimen of the dada journal Der Zeltweg appears.
At the end of 1919, Tristan Tzara leaves Zurich and goes to Paris. A new world of strange and novel interpretation and combination of objects is growing out of the pre-dada 'ready-mades', by Marcel Duchamp and the future creations of the dadaists.
January. Exhibition 'Das Neue Leben' in the Kunsthaus Zurich with works of Arp, Baumann, Giacometti, Janco, O. Lüthy, Morach, Picabia, Taeuber and others.
On the occasion of this exhibition, the following lectures are given in Zurich and Basel:
- Otto Flake: Introduction into the appreciation of the new art
- Tristan Tzara: 'L'art abstrait' [= abstract art]
- Fritz Baumann: Was will 'Das Neue Leben'? [= What does 'The New Life' want?]
- Marcel Janco: 'Sur l'art abstrait et ses buts'[= About abstract art and its aims].
February. Number 8 of Picabia's periodical 391 is published in Zurich.
Publication of the Dada-Almanach.
February. Baader, Hausmann and Huelsenbeck start a dada lecture trip to Dresden, Hamburg, Leipzig and later on to Prague.
Dada dance and an exhibition with works of Picabia, Arp and Ribemont-Dessaignes.
Dada exhibition is closed by the police.
January 23. First great dada arrangement at the Palais des FÊtes, organized by the circle of the journal Littérature, called 'Premier vendredi de littérature'.
February. Publication of the Schammade (Dadameter) with a very active participation of the Paris dadaists.
February. Dada arrangement in the Salon des Indépendants (February 5). Dada manifestation in the Club du Faubourg and the Université Populaire du Faubourg St. Antoine on the 18th of February.
March 5. 'Grand Bal Dada' at the Salle communale de Plainpalais.
March 27. Dada manifestation in the Salle Berlioz dans la Maison de l'Oeuvre.
At this time, the Bulletin Dada (Dada No. 6) appears in Paris.
The first number of Proverbe, a journal edited by Paul Éluard, is published.
Max Ernst is suspended from the 'Section d'or', a group of cubists and abstract artists, with members as Archipenko, Survage and Gleizes. Later on, all dadaists are excluded from this group.
Publication of Dada No.7 (Dadaphone), the last specimen of the periodical, founded by Tzara at Zurich.
No. 12 of 391 appears, on its title-page the 'Mona Lisa with the moustache'.
April. 'Dada-Vorfrühling' in Brauhaus Winter with participation of Arp, Baargeld and Ernst.
April. Publication of Picabia's first 2 issues of Cannibale, in which he attacks some of the dadaists.
April 16-30. Dada exhibition of Francis Picabia at the gallery Au Sans Pareil.
Arp arrives in Paris.
May 26. Great dada festival in the Salle Gaveau. Dermée, Eluard, Picabia, Tzara, Breton, Soupault, Ribemont-Dessaignes and Aragon are active participators. This event represents the culmination of the Paris dada group.
Publication of the dada-specimen of Littérature, enclosing 23 manifestos.
July 1-August 25. First great dada exhibition in the rooms of Dr. Otto Burchard's art-shop, called 'Erste Internationale Dada-Messe'[= First International Dada Fair]. A most important exhibition with 174 exhibited objects, a culmination of the dada activities in Berlin.
Publication of the dada journal Bleu.
Within this year, Picabia and Breton withdraw from the dada movement. Fights inside the movement begin.
April. Marcel Duchamp and Man Ray publish the only specimen of New York Dada.
April 14. 'Ouverture de la Grande Saison Dada' - an attempt for a fresh impetus, which fails. Visite à Saint-Julien-le-Pauvre.
May 2. Dada exhibition with works of Max Ernst at the Galerie Au Sans Pareil.
May 13. Dada manifestation in the Salle des Sociétés Savantes, rue Danton, where the dadaists sit publicly in judgement on Maurice Barrès. In protest against this management, Picabia withdraws from the dada movement and attacks it.
June 6. Salon Dada, international exhibition organized by Tzara in the hall of Galerie Montaigne.
June 10. 'Soiré Dada' at the Galerie Montaigne.
December 13. Exhibition Man Ray at the Librairie Six.
Max Ernst leaves Cologne and settles in Paris. This step prepares the disolution of the Cologne dada group.
Theo van Doesburg uses the pseudonymous name I.K. Bonset for his edition of a dada journal Mécano.
André Breton's plan to organize a 'Congrès de Paris' of the whole intelligentsia and all artists causes a splitting of the dada group. Breton withdraws from the group. Tristan Tzara, who had fought against Breton, is left with Paul Eluard, Théodore Fränkel, Ribemont-Dessaignes and Erik Satie. The discrepancies cause distressing controversies, which degenerate into personal remarks. On the occasion of a meeting at the Closerie des Lilas, Breton is called to account and this causes the official end of the Paris dada movement.
February. Picabia publishes a pamphlet La Pomme de Pins, in which he attacks most of the dadaists.
April. In a counter-attack Le coeur à barbe, Tzara and the rest of the group assail Breton and Picabia.
June. The last big dada exhibition 'Salon Dada, Exposition Internationale' at the gallery Montaigne.
October. Congress of the constructivists (L. Moholy-Nagy, El Lissitzky, Max Burchartz, Cornelius von Eesteren, Alfred Kemeny, Theo van Doesburg and others), with the participation of the dadaists Hans Arp, Hans Richter and Tristan Tzara. At the time of the congress, the constructivists cannot indentify Theo van Doesburg with I.K. Bonset, the editor of the Dutch dada journal Mécano.
Marcel Duchamp gives up his painting for just playing chess and making film-experiments.
July. The last dada arrangement at the Théâtre Michel. Music by Erik Satie, Auric, Stravinsky and Milhaud. Films by Hans Richter and Man Ray. The performance of Tzara's 'Coeur à Gaz' ends with a scandal. Aragon, Breton and Péret demonstrate publicly against Tzara.
The 'Sept Manifestes' by Tristan Tzara appear as a book, with drawings by Picabia.
Publication of the first surrealistic manifesto by André Breton. Most of the Paris dadaists join the surrealists.